Applied Rulings Definitions - Montreal Pool League

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Ball in Hand
See AR 1-38, Ball in Hand Placement
Bank Shot; Carom Shot; Combination Shot; Kick Shot; Kiss Shot

Although the definitions for these shots refer to the "called ball", naturally these types of shots exist in games that are not call shot games. The references to the called ball in these definitions are specifically to support and emphasize the restrictions placed on these types of shots under Rule 1-16, Calling Ball and Pocket.
Carom Shot; Kiss Shot (also see A.R.D. “Bank Shot”)

The terms “carom” and “kiss” are sometimes used interchangeably, or described or interpreted differently by various persons or authorities. The point of this ruling is specifically not to debate the distinctions that may be commonly argued between the terms, or their application to other situations such as defining procedures for calling shots. The terms are addressed in the definitions sufficiently, and clearly enough to impart their intent within the framework of these rules.
Combination Shot
(also applies to Rule 1-16, Calling Ball and Pocket)
(also see A.R.D. “Bank Shot”)

General Discussion: On a combination shot, the called ball might not be the last ball in the series of balls struck or the first ball to be pocketed in the called pocket. In figure 10-1, the player may call the 12-ball in the corner pocket, intending to pocket it after the solid ball is pocketed first. It is still a combination shot as defined. Figure 10-2 depicts a combination shot. This figure is included specifically to emphasize the provision of Rule 1-16-3 that a combination shot, no matter how obvious it may appear, must be called.
If the shooter pockets the 12-ball in Figure 10-2 and does not call the shot, the inning is ended. However, in Figure 10-3, if the shooter in an 8-Ball game, having stripes as their established group, addresses the 12-ball, the shot would be considered obvious, and any contact of the 12-ball with the solid ball would be an incidental kiss. Even if the solid ball falls in before, after, or at about the same time as the stripe, it will not be considered a combination shot.
The number of balls left on the table or their position on the table is irrelevant to the requirement to call all combinations. In figure 10-2, it would not matter if the 10-ball and 12-ball were the last two stripes on the table. The requirement to call the 12-ball is still in effect.
In practice, you may protect yourself against any possible detrimental effect of Rule 1-16 by calling all shots that may have even a remote appearance of a combination, and communicating your intentions clearly to your opponent. If a shot is disputed after the fact, the referee's judgment will be final concerning whether the shot was a combination. Figure 10-4 applies to Situation 1.
1. Situation: Player A has solids. Player A, without calling the shot, shoots the 6-ball
into the 12, pocketing the 6-ball after the 12-ball.
Ruling: Player A’s inning ends. Player B accepts the table in position.
Discussion: This type of shot is included in the definition of “Combination”, and therefore must be called.
Double Hit
See A.R. 1-30, “Double Hit”
Down on the Shot
See A.R. 1-9, Stopping Play.
Illegal Break

Depending on specific game rules, it is possible to have an illegal break without a foul, or an illegal break and a separate foul on the same shot unrelated to the illegal break.
Kick Shot
See A.R.D. “Bank Shot.
Kiss Shot
See A.R.D. “Bank Shot.
Legal Break

The requirements for a legal break generally apply only to the action of the balls on the table. Depending on specific game rules, it is possible to have a legal break and a separate foul on the same shot (e.g., violation of Rule 1-33-7-d.)
Obvious Shot
(See A.R.D. "Safety", and A.R. 1-16, Calling Ball and Pocket.)
Pocketed Ball (Scratch)

1. Situation: (a) an object ball (b) the cue ball, comes to rest touching both the bed of the table and one or more previously pocketed balls in a full pocket.
Ruling: (a) The referee will judge whether, if the supporting ball(s) in the full pocket were removed, the ball would fall into the pocket or remain on the bed. The ball will then be pocketed or placed as judged and play will continue. (b) scratch.
2. Situation: An object ball rebounds from a pocket because of a ball, piece of equipment, or other obstruction in the pocket, and (a) stops on the bed of the table; (b) lands on the floor.
Ruling: (a) the ball is not pocketed. Play continues based on the result of the shot. (b) foul, unless caused by equipment left by the opponent. (See A.R. 1-3, Use of Equipment, Situation 4.)
3. Situation: The cue ball rebounds from a pocket because of a ball, piece of equipment, or other obstruction in the pocket. and lands on the bed of the table.
Ruling: (a): scratch, unless caused by equipment left by the opponent. (See A.R. 1-3, Use of Equipment, Situation 4.)
Discussion, Situations 2 and 3: While a referee, if available, may assist in clearing pockets, the player is ultimately responsible for ensuring that pockets are clear of their own equipment or pocketed balls.
4. Situation: A ball drops into a pocket and, without rebounding from the pocket, and then falls to the floor because of a flaw in the pocket or ball-return system.
Ruling: The ball is pocketed.
Push Shot

Do not confuse the term “Push Shot” with a double hit. They are not the same thing. A push shot occurs when, intentionally or unintentionally, the cue tip rests on the cue ball significantly longer than during a normal stroke, essentially resulting in the cue “shoving” the cue ball as opposed to “striking” it. Whether a push shot has occurred is at the sole judgment of the referee.
Safety
(see also “Obvious Shot”, Rule 1-17 "Calling a Safety")

General Discussion: The definition of "safety”, and safety play in general, is affected by issues similar to the ones discussed in the Applied Ruling for “Combination”. The most common issue is the possible conflict between the "undeclared" safety that results in a pocketed ball and whether or not the shot was obvious. By "undeclared" safety, we mean a shot in which the player does not intend to pocket a ball yet does not declare a safety, which many players frequently do when playing what they perceive as simple defensive shots.
There are no diagrams for this discussion because there are countless possibilities. The problem occurs when a player, successfully attempting to play defensively and leaving the cue ball in a difficult position, also unintentionally pockets a legal object ball on the same shot. The player had no idea the ball was going to be pocketed, and so did not declare a safety. Neither player wants to shoot from the resulting difficult position of the cue ball, so a dispute ensues about whether or not the pocketed ball could have been considered obvious.
In many situations like this, the unintentionally pocketed ball is the result of a shot that is defined as not obvious. Such shots do not apply to this discussion because they must be called, so the issue cannot arise. If no call is made before such a shot and a ball is pocketed, the shooter is prohibited from continuing by rule.
However, it is possible that a situation may arise in which the pocketed ball is the result of shot that falls under either subsection (d) or (e) of the definition of “Obvious Ball”. In those situations, the referee is the sole judge of whether the shot was obvious, and therefore whether the shooter must continue (in the case of an “obvious shot” ruling), or whether the incoming player must accept the table in position (in the case of a “not obvious” shot ruling.)
In this situation, the shooter's opponent may not necessarily use the provision of Rule 1-16-2 to argue that a shot was obvious under the framework of the safety rules simply because they did not question the shot before it occurred. That is not within the intent of the rule.
As with combinations, there is a simple way you can protect yourself from any possible detrimental effects of the safety rules: always call a safety if you do not want to shoot again, and always communicate your intentions clearly and verbally to your opponent. While it is not required by the rules to call a safety if you are playing defensively and not attempting to pocket a ball, and while it is true that many simple defensive shots are not actually "safety" shots as defined by the rules, there is no prohibition against declaring a safety even if you do not intend to pocket a ball. Then, if you do accidentally pocket a ball, there will be no dispute. Otherwise, it will be a judgment call by the referee.
Situation 1: Player A calls a ball and pocket, and at the same time calls a safety. Player A completes the shot as intended, pocketing the called ball.
Ruling: Player A's inning is ended. The safety takes precedence over the called shot, and is enforced according to the General Rules and specific game rules.
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